Reduced urine output in children - Acute kidney failure

           If the kidney is not functioning properly, then there will be retention of nitrogenous wastes like urea and creatinine in the blood. The two main diagnostic criteria for acute kidney failure is within 48 hrs, there will be a reduction in the urine output (less than 0.5ml/kg/hr for >6hrs) and the serum creatinine will be increased from the normal reference range. The serum creatinine level is analysed by blood report.

           The causes of acute kidney failure are classified into...

What happens when blood calcium level becomes low or high in newborn and children

           Calcium is essential for maintaining the electrolyte balance in our body. More than half of the body calcium is present in the mass composition of the bones. Calcium is needed for some normal physiological functions like muscle contraction, blood coagulation and neuromuscular signal transmission. Vitamin-D and some hormones play an important role in calcium absorption from the dietary foods. Let know what happens when serum (blood) calcium level becomes low or high in newborn and children.

How to know that the newborn baby has jaundice and how to treat jaundice in newborn

           Jaundice is a condition in a newborn in which the bilirubin level will be high when comparing with the normal range. It is the most common problem in the first week of life of a newborn.

           In newborn, the jaundice is clinically classified into physiological jaundice and pathological jaundice. Physiological jaundice may happen due to the physiological immaturity of the newborn to handle the increased bilirubin production. Normally, visible jaundice will appear during 24-72 hour of age. In physiological jaundice, the total serum bilirubin level peaks on the third day of life and they usually fall in term neonates (28 days of life). Adequate breastfeeding will help decrease this kind of physiological jaundice.

Neonatal respiratory distress - pulmonary and non pulmonary causes

           The neonatal respiratory distress is the common problem in neonates. The respiratory distress will have the clinical features like increased respiratory rate(which will be above 60 breaths per minute) and other findings like chest retraction and cyanosis are noted. The chest retractions are absent in non-respiratory causes. The causes of neonatal respiratory distress are divided into pulmonary causes and non-pulmonary causes.